Die Berliner Luft

Operettemelodien Berliner Luft ble komponert av Paul Lincke i 1904 og inkludert i operetten Frau Luna, som fortsatt spilles til stor fornøyelse for berlinerne og andre, og som alle berlinere over en viss alder kjenner og kan nynne på. Berlinerluft var en metafor for frihetsfølelse. I dag bruker vi uttrykket ironisk, og det motsatte av frihetsfølelse er ment, nemlig helsefarlig luftforurensing. Jeg tenker ofte på Woody Allens uttalelse om New York-luften: ”Jeg tar ikke sjansen på å puste inn luft jeg ikke kan se”. Vel, Berlin-luften kan man også se. Ikke direkte i ”uttynnet” form, men etter et regnskyll, på balkongbord og –stoler. Et brunsvart lag.

Og hva gjør Berlin-politikerne for å bedre forholdene? Til nå nokså pinglete tiltak. Det innføres Tempo 30, altså fartsbegrensning til 30 km/t, i en rekke gater. Først var det mindre gater, fra og med høsten skal også strekninger av gjennomkjøringsgatene til pers. Folk rister på hodet. Skal det altså bli mindre utslipp ved å stå i kø? Neida, sier myndighetene, det skal lysreguleres slik at det ikke blir kødannelse. Hallo!? Tror noen på det?

Kjøreforbud for forurensende dieselbiler har også sittet langt inne, selv om Berlin ikke er en bilproduserende delstat. Delstatsregjeringen, senatet, skylder på at det ikke vil være mulig å kontrollere et kjøreforbud så lenge forbundsregjeringen ikke har innført blå skiltmerker for utslippsvennlige biler. Man sender ballen videre. Akk ja. Den tyske kontroll-lysten i full blomstring. Jeg undres over at det skal være så mye vanskeligere å tenke seg at folk ville følge slike regler enn det er å gå ut fra at alle betaler for seg på kafé, selv når de sitter ute og servitøren ikke viser seg på lang tid – noen ganger må man gå inn for å få betalt – eller at de ikke stikker av uten å betale for bensinen selv om det vanligvis ikke er betalingsautomater på pumpene her. Men kanskje er det slik at det er selvsagt å ikke snyte private forretningsdrivende som kaféeiere, men at det blir annerledes med myndighetene? Kanskje er det myndighetene som har rett når de mener at et slikt kjøreforbud må kontrolleres? Jeg vet ikke, jeg må nok undersøke dette aspektet av den tyske folkesjelen nærmere.

En dag i vinter ble jeg stoppet på gaten av to studenter som holdt på med en meningsundersøkelse. De studerte miljøkunnskap på det tekniske universitetet (TU) og ville vite hva jeg syntes om Berlin-luften. Altså om luftforurensningen. Det mente jeg mye om. I mitt tidligere liv i Oslo var jeg som allergiker sterkt plaget av luftforurensningen om vinteren og har fulgt med på hva det nåværende byrådet har satt i gang av tiltak. Så jeg la ut om omlegging til utslippsfri bilpark og insentiver til det, om mindre kjøring i indre by og færre parkeringsplasser. Men, sa jeg, det må også bli en reduksjon i antall biler totalt, men det er det vel ikke mulig å håpe på her i landet hvor folk elsker bilen sin så høyt.

Da la de to fra seg blokken og blyanten, de hadde notert ivrig, smilte bredt og sa: ”Slik er det ikke lenger, slik tenker ikke vi unge.”

Og statistikken viser at de har rett. Stadig færre unge tar sertifikat. Stadig færre under 35 kjøper bil. Og i byer som Berlin har stadig færre husstander egen bil. I Berlin faktisk bare halvparten av husstandene. Og hvem ser vi frakte barn og varer med varesykler? – de unge. Disse syklene blir det stadig flere av, og muligheter for bildeling samt deling av for eksempel elsykler eller elektriske mopeder florerer.

Vitsetegningen nedenfor viser realiteten med luftforurensning og latterliggjør oppgraderingstiltakene bilkartellet er villig til å gjøre. Det har kommet en pakke i posten med miljøtiltak fra bilkartellet, gaven gis til alle husstander i indre by. Fruen spør hva pakken inneholder, og som vi ser, har mannen allerede prøvd ut oppgraderingen.

Kilde: Berliner Zeitung

Men nå – nye planer fra Berlin-senatet

En ren revolusjon – i alle fall på papiret, sier mediene og sykkelforbundet ADFC (Allgemeiner Deutscher Fahrrad-Club). Berlin-senatet, ved samferdselssenatoren Regine Günther, som er innvalgt for die Grünen, har lagt fram vidtrekkende planer for Berlins samferdsel og luftkvalitet. Kanskje ansporet av miljøminister Hendricks’ (SPD) sterke utspill mot billobbien og av at det er valg i høst – Berlin-senatet er en rød-grønn regjering – la senatet 5 august som første delstat fram et utkast til en mobilitetslov. Senatet slår fast at mobiliteten skal skje på miljø- og klimavennlig måte. De regner med å få vedtatt loven i løpet av 2017.

Det har lenge vært sterk lobbyvirksomhet fra sykkelforbundet, og nå får de alt de har ønsket seg – de uttaler at 80-90 prosent av målene deres er nådd i og med denne nye loven. Altså virkelig revolusjonerende.

Mobilitet som skjer til fots, på sykkel eller med buss og bane, skal økes drastisk. Disse får forrang foran bilene. Sykkelstier skal ikke bare økes i antall men bli sikrere ved å være atskilt fra kjørebanen med opphøyde kanter eller pæler, de skal være så brede at sykler kan kjøre forbi hverandre på trygg måte, og de skal ha god avstand til parkerte biler. I Berlin parkeres nemlig biler innenfor sykkelstripene, og det har hendt stygge ulykker, til og med dødsfall, ved at syklister har kjørt rett inn i bildører som plutselig blir åpnet. Et fullstendig sykkelnett skal planlegges innen et år og være ferdig utbygd innen 2030. I tillegg loves det 100 000 nye sykkelparkeringsplasser langs gater og torg – såkalte Fahrradbügel (sykkelbøyler), som man låser fast syklene til – og sykkelparkeringshus der det er behov for det.

Så er det bilparken. Senest 2050 skal den motoriserte samferdselen være fullt klimanøytral. Busser skal gå over til el- eller gassdrift, varelevering skje med elbiler. Det skal anlegges enda flere trikkelinjer. Grønne bølger skal sørge for mindre kødannelse. Dessuten, svarer senator Günther i nyhetssendingen til RBB (Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg) på kritikk fra bilorganisasjonen ADAC: ”jo flere mennesker som går over til buss, bane eller sykkel, desto raskere kommer de frem som må bruke bil”.

Det blir spennende å følge utviklingen fremover. Og etter å ha vært skeptisk til at Berlin-senatet tør å gå imot bilelskende velgere, heier jeg nå på regjerende borgermester Michael Müller og mannskapet hans.

 

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