Die Berliner Schnauze

Om berlinerdialekten, kanskje helst for tyskkyndige

Berlinerne er kjent for kjeften sin, altså ”die Schnauze”, som er litt småfrekk og veldig direkte. Litt norsk, på mange måter. Jeg liker det godt. Walter Benjamin og andre Berlin-flanører har skrevet om denne frekke kjeften lenge før meg.

Berlin-dialekten er nokså spesiell, lett blanding av platt-tysk og høytysk og vel også noe påvirkning fra alt det jiddiske, og kanskje også de slaviske språkene rett rundt hjørnet, skulle jeg tro. Og de som bruker den ufortynnet og ekte – det er gjerne håndverkere og slike kategorier – prater også gjerne og mye. På grunn av vannlekkasjer og annet har jeg rik erfaring med håndverkere. Å ha dem i arbeid hjemme hos seg, medfører mange og lange samtaler. Det vil si – samtaler: Det dreier seg stort sett om enetale. Slik også når man en sjelden gang treffer på en drosjesjåfør som er vaskeekte berliner (de fleste er russere eller tyrkere). Jeg forstår stort sett halvparten av det de sier. Men det er enkelt – det gjelder bare å komme med de riktige, bekreftende lydene på rett sted, så går det av seg selv. Det dreier seg om selvgående monologer.

Berlindialekten bytter ut g med j, altså jesagt i stedet for gesagt. Du kan høre en fyr rope til arbeidskompisen sin når de driver på med for eksempel pålasting på et lasteplan: ”Allet jut!” (= alles gut, altså: greit/alt i orden). Ich heter icke, nicht blir til nischt, einer blir til eener, auch til ooch. For eksempel slik: Ick hab det jar nischt jesagt (vær så god, tolk selv). Eller: Keener weiss wat de lieba Kanzlerin jemeint hat.

Et sighseeingbuss-selskap har malt følgende på toetasjesbussene sine: Kommense rein könnense rauskiecken. Utlagt til høytysk: Kommen Sie herein, dann können Sie hinausgucken.

A pro pos ”ooch”: Det hendte i DDR-tiden et par ganger at DDR-borgere flyktet via Tsjekkoslovakia, som det het den gangen, kapret et LOT-fly og tvang det til å lande på Tempelhof i Vest-Berlin. Berlinerhumoren var raskt ute med navngiving. Ifølge berlinerne sto forkortelsen LOT for: Landet ooch in Tempelhof.

Kunstneren Heinrich Zille tegnet og filmet Berlins folkeliv og fattigdom rundt 1900 og er en viktig kilde både til livet blant Berlins lavere sosialgrupper og til berlinerdialekten. Her er en tegning jeg setter særlig pris på. På Zilles tid kom folk i tukthus hvis de hadde satt seg i gjeld de ikke kunne betale tilbake, altså i gjeldsfengsel. Mange fedre med stadig flere barn kom nok i den situasjonen. Her gleder de største barna seg til faren kommer hjem fra tukthuset, og særlig til å vise ham det siste skuddet på stammen, tydeligvis tvillinger. De tror han vil bli så glad:

Vater wird sich frei’n, wenn er aus’t Zuchthaus kommt, det wir schon so ville sind!

Fattigunger i Berlin, tegnet av Heinrich Zille 1904

 

 

107 thoughts on “Die Berliner Schnauze”

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