Erdogan versus Tyskland

I Norge har det avislesende og fjernsynsseende – og tvitrende – publikum lenge hatt mye god underholdning i president Trumps diverse utspill og uttalelser. Enten man sjokkeres eller mores, god underholdning må det sies å være. Her i Tyskland har vi også et muntrasjonsråd på sør-østlig flanke. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan kan til dels synes enda galere enn kollegaen i vest. I alle fall stormannsgal. Og beregnelig uberegnelig, hvis uttrykket gir mening. Nemlig at det som virker uberegnelig – alle utfallene mot tyske politikere og gjentatte fengslinger av tyske statsborgere med påstand om medlemskap i terrororganisasjoner – er ganske så lett å forutse: Det hører til dagens orden så å si.

Angela Merkel har lenge – for lenge, tror jeg – gjort gode miner til slett spill overfor Erdogan. Det sitter ni tyske statsborgere fengslet i Tyrkia på grunnlag av mistanke om assistanse til terroristorganisasjoner eller lignende komiske påstander som kunne fått oss til å bli ganske muntre om det ikke var så alvorlig for dem det gjelder. En av disse er den etterhvert svært kjente tysk-tyrkiske journalisten i Die Welt, Deniz Yücel, som har sittet fengslet uten rettssak i flere måneder. Han har intervjuet terrorister, visstnok, og da er man jo selv terrorist eller gir i alle fall støtte til terrorister. Yücel og de andre har dobbelt statsborgerskap, altså både tysk og tyrkisk. Det gjør det visst vanskeligere for diplomatiet og politikken å gjøre noe effektivt med situasjonen.

Tyske statsborgere arrestert og fengslet

Annerledes ble det i sommer da – i rask rekkefølge – to tyske statsborgere uten tyrkisk pass ble arrestert. Først var det statsviteren og menneskerettsforkjemperen Peter Steudtner, som rett og slett var på et seminar i Tyrkia i regi av Amnesty. Amnesty er selvfølgelig fy-fy. Steudtner hadde for øvrig aldri satt sin fot i Tyrkia tidligere. Men anklaget for samrøre med terrorister ble han nå likevel. Vel å merke betyr terrorister og terrororganisasjoner i Erdogans språkdrakt ikke IS, som nordmenn og tyskere vel først ville tenke på, men derimot PKK og Gülen-organisasjonen.

Peter Steudtner. Foto fra Der Spiegel

For kort tid siden ble forfatteren Dogan Akhanli fra Köln, tysk statsborger med bakgrunn fra Tyrkia, arrestert i Spania der han var på ferie. Tyrkia utstedte arrestordre på ham og Spania fulgte opp. Tyrkia hadde nok lenge ønsket å få tak i ham, men det var ikke trolig at han ville reist til sitt gamle hjemland på ferie, han visste jo at han sto på Erdogans liste. Han ble raskt løslatt, blant annet etter skarp reaksjon fra den tyske utenriksministeren, men må oppholde seg i Spania i flere uker i påvente av at Tyrkia gir Spania en begrunnelse for utleveringsordren. Så skal det spanske rettsvesenet treffe en beslutning. Det er vel knapt noen som tror at de kommer til å etterkomme utleveringsordren. Men sikker kan vi ikke være, og Akhanlis spanske advokat har kritisert de spanske myndighetene og antydet at det ikke er første gang de har etterlevd en slik arrestordre fra Tyrkia.

Dogan Akhanli. Foto fra Berliner Zeitung

Peter Steudtner er for øvrig fra Berlin, fra Prenzlauer Berg rett i nærheten av der jeg bor. Menigheten i den kirken han hører til, Gethsemanekirche, holder hver søndag forbønn for ham og sier de vil fortsette med det inntil han er satt fri. Som ateist var min første reaksjon som ventet – ironisk –  da jeg fikk vite om det: Ja, det hjelper nok sikkert veldig … Men så tenkte jeg mer over saken og kom til at jo, det kan antakelig være en trøst i en slik situasjon å vite at de der hjemme aldri glemmer en. Så jeg tok en tur og fotograferte kirken, syntes den var verdt det.

Gethsemanekirche i Prenzlauer Berg. Banneret bak statuen handler om Peter Steudtner.

Sigmar Gabriel reagerer skarpt

Etter disse to arrestasjonene ble det en skarpere tone fra tyske myndigheter. Utenriksminister Gabriel gjorde klart at det kom til å få økonomiske følger for Tyrkia. Han advarte tyske firmaer fra å investere i Tyrkia. Det viser seg at økonomisk trykk virker, som det eneste. Erdogan hadde laget en liste over 680 tyske firmaer som formentlig understøtter terrorister – der var blant annet kjemper som Daimler og BASF. Etter Gabriels oppfordring til å ikke investere i Tyrkia lenger ble listen umiddelbart trukket tilbake og det ble sagt at den berodde på en feil …

I sommer blandet Erdogan seg inn i tysk valgkamp og forklarte tysk-tyrkere at de ikke måtte stemme på de to store partiene CDU og SPD, som er i regjeringskoalisjon, og heller ikke Die Grünen. Disse partiene var ”fiender av Tyrkia”. Da den tyske regjeringen fraba seg innblanding i tysk valgkamp, sa Erdogan om Gabriel *: ”Hvem er du som tror du kan snakke til den tyrkiske presidenten?”

Vel – bare utenriksministeren i Europas største land …

Og det kommer stadig mer underholdning fra den siden. Når det nå blir mer og mer klart at ingen i EU vil støtte EU-medlemskap for Tyrkia, og at det i Tyskland er særlig stor stemning for å avslutte de lenge pågåtte forhandlingene, men at det må være klart at det er Erdogan selv som må forklare folket sitt at det ikke blir noe av det de har innstilt seg på, reagerte han slik *: ”Det er ikke viktig for oss om Tyskland holder dørene åpne eller ikke. Vi har dører nok.”       

Hvorfor hater Erdogan Tyskland?

Ingrid Brekke i Aftenposten ga nylig en god analyse av situasjonen og nevnte et par grunner til at Erdogan langer ut mot Tyskland. Men det er enda flere grunner:

Den første grunnen er at den tyske forbundsdagen i 2015 bedømte massakren av armeniere i Tyrkia i 1915 som folkemord. Flere parlamentarikere av tyrkisk avstamming fikk hatbrev og var bekymret for å reise på besøk til slektninger i Tyrkia.

For det annet har Tyskland gitt asyl til tyrkiske Nato-offiserer som visste de ikke kunne reise hjem igjen etter det såkalte kuppforsøket sommeren 2016 (jeg kaller det alltid ”såkalt”). Dette tar Erdogan svært ille opp. Det er vel ikke en helt umulig tanke å lure på om han vil forsøke å bruke de arresterte tyskerne som byttemiddel mot disse offiserene.

Våren 2017 appellerte tyske politikere til den tyrkisk-tyske befolkningen om å ikke stemme for Erdogans planer om restrukturering av statssystemet for å gi ham mer makt. Dessverre virket det ikke, over 60 prosent av de stemmberettigede tyrkerne i Tyskland stemte for Erdogan! Flere tyske byer og kommuner nektet politikere fra Tyrkia å komme dit og holde valgtaler. En Erdogan i full harnisk dro frem nazi-sammenligningene sine, som han er spesielt glad i å gjøre når Tyskland ikke spiller på lag.

Fra norske medier har jeg forstått at turismen fra Norge til Tyrkia har tatt seg opp igjen. Folk er ikke lenger så redd for terroranslag. Men har de tenkt over muligheten for å bli arrestert og tiltalt for å støtte terrorister? Kanskje ikke så aktuelt som det er for tyskere, men likevel: Har du for eksempel har gitt din støtte til Amnestys eller norske PENs menneskerettskampanjer i forbindelse med arresterte tyrkiske journalister? Eller lignende – det behøver faktisk ikke være noe annet enn at du snakker med de gale menneskene. Noe å tenke litt over, kanskje? Jeg synes at man uansett ikke bør gi støtte til et regime som Tyrkia ved å besøke dem og legge igjen penger der. Jo da, jeg er klar over at de vanlige tyrkerne som driver turismen, trenger pengene. Og det er nødvendigvis noen av dem som ikke har stemt på Erdogan. Men likevel.

 

* Sitatene er hentet fra Berliner Zeitung

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